What is an ovarian cyst?
An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled
sac that forms on or inside an ovary. The ovaries are a pair of small, oval-shaped
organs in the lower part of a woman’s belly (abdomen). About once a month, one of the
ovaries releases an egg. The ovaries also make the hormones estrogen and progesterone.
These play roles in pregnancy, the menstrual cycle, and breast growth.
There are different kinds of
ovarian cysts. They can occur for various reasons, and they may need different
treatments. A cyst can vary in size from half an inch to 4 inches, and sometimes be even
Ovarian cysts are very common in
women of childbearing age, but uncommon in women after menopause. Young girls can also
get them, but this is less common.
What causes an ovarian cyst?
Different types of ovarian cysts
have different causes. The most common type of ovarian cyst is known as a functional cyst. Functional ovarian cysts
only happen in women who have started their menstrual cycles, but haven’t gone through
menopause. There are two types of functional cysts:
Follicular cyst. This cyst happens
when an egg isn’t released. It keeps growing inside the ovary.
Corpus luteum cyst. This type of cyst occurs when the sac around
the egg doesn’t dissolve after the egg is released.
Other types and causes of cysts include:
Endometrioma. This cyst is filled with old blood and tissue that
resembles the lining of the uterus. They are often called chocolate cysts because of
the dark color of the fluid within them. They can happen in women with
Dermoid. This cyst develops from ovarian cells and eggs. They may
have hair, skin, teeth, bone, or fat in them. These cysts are common in women of
Cysts can also be caused by:
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition that causes multiple cysts on the
Severe pelvic infection such as
chlamydia. This type of cyst may be called an abscess.
Who is at risk of having an ovarian cyst?
Certain things may increase your risk of having an ovarian cyst.
What are the symptoms of an ovarian cyst?
Many women don’t have any symptoms from the cyst. In women with symptoms, the most
common is pain or pressure in your lower belly on the side of the cyst. This pain may be
dull or sharp, and it may come and go. A cyst that breaks open (ruptures) may lead to
sudden, sharp pain.
Other symptoms of an ovarian cyst can include:
Pain in the lower back or thighs
Trouble emptying your bladder completely
Pain during sex
Pain during your period
Abnormal vaginal bleeding (rare)
How is an ovarian cyst diagnosed?
Your primary care provider, an
obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) doctor, or certified nurse midwife may diagnose the
condition. Your healthcare provider will ask about your health history and your
symptoms. You will also have a physical exam. This will likely include a pelvic exam.
During the pelvic exam, your healthcare provider may feel the swelling on your ovary. In
women with no symptoms, this is often the first sign of a cyst.
If your healthcare provider thinks
you may have an ovarian cyst, you may need tests. These can help your healthcare
provider learn the type of cyst. Tests can also help rule out other problems, such as an
ectopic pregnancy. The tests may include:
Ultrasound. This test uses sound waves to view the size, shape, and
location of the cyst. The test can also show if the growth is solid or filled with
MRI. This uses large magnets and a computer to create a detailed
picture of the area.
Pregnancy test. This is done to check if pregnancy may be the cause
of the cyst.
Blood tests. These check for hormone problems and cancer. They also
check if the cyst is bleeding.
Biopsy. This is a test where a tiny piece of the ovary is taken.
The piece is examined in a lab for cancer cells. This may be done if an ultrasound
shows a certain type of growth on the ovary. Biopsy of the ovary is usually not done
if cancer is suspected.
How is an ovarian cyst treated?
Treatment for an ovarian cyst will depend on the type of cyst, your age, and your
general health. Most women will not need treatment. You may be told to watch your
symptoms over time. An ovarian cyst will often go away with no treatment in a few weeks
In some cases, you may need to have follow-up ultrasound tests. These are to check if
your cyst has gone away or is not growing. You may not need any other treatment.
If your ultrasound or blood tests
show signs of cancer, your healthcare provider may advise surgery. This is done to
remove part or all of your ovary. Your healthcare provider might also advise surgery
Your cyst causes ongoing pressure or pain
Your cyst appears to be growing
You have a very large cyst
You have endometriosis and want the cyst removed to help with fertility
Can an ovarian cyst be prevented?
If you have hormone issues, your
healthcare provider may advise taking birth control pills. These may help prevent
ovarian cysts. Taking antibiotics for a pelvic infection may also prevent a cyst.
What are possible complications of an ovarian cyst?
An ovarian cyst can sometimes break open (rupture). This may not cause any symptoms. Or
it may cause sudden, sharp pain in the lower belly. A ruptured cyst can cause a lot of
blood and fluid loss. This can lead to low blood pressure. In some cases, surgery may be
Rarely, an ovarian cyst can also cause twisting (torsion) of the fallopian tube. This
can block normal blood supply to the ovary. This can lead to sudden pain and sometimes
nausea and vomiting. It may need emergency surgery.
How to manage an ovarian cyst
Work with your healthcare provider
to find a treatment plan that makes sense for you. Keep all of your follow-up
appointments. Tell your healthcare provider right away if you have sudden belly pain or
other severe symptoms. These may be caused by a ruptured ovarian cyst.
Key points about ovarian cysts
An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled sac that forms in or on one of your ovaries.
Most ovarian cysts are functional
cysts. These are related to ovulation. They often go away with no treatment.
Only a small number of ovarian cysts
are caused by cancer.
PCOS, endometriosis, and pelvic
infection are some of the other causes of ovarian cysts.
A cyst may cause symptoms, such as
abdominal pain. Or it may cause no symptoms.
You may need tests to help diagnose
your cyst. These may include an ultrasound and blood tests.
You may need no treatment for the
cyst. Or you may need surgery.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:
Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider
At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines,
treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives
Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also
know what the side effects are.
Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or
If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that
Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.
Online Medical Reviewer:
Donna Freeborn PhD CNM FNP
Online Medical Reviewer:
Online Medical Reviewer:
Irina Burd MD PhD
Date Last Reviewed:
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